It is called alphabet (or alphabet ) yet structured group of letters under a specific order generally accepted within the framework of a language . It is a set composed of spellings intended to represent the language. In the Spanish language, this group owes its name to the first three letters that make it up: TO , B and C .
The system adopted for the Spanish language is the roman alphabet , which offers a structure of writing that serves as a worldwide basis since, with certain modifications, it is used in most of the tongues spoken in America , the European Union , the area of Sub-Saharan Africa and the islands located in the Pacific Ocean .
According to the experts on issues linguistic, the first ABCs of the West found their origin in the Northern Semitic Alphabet , which appeared more than 3,500 years . Despite the name that identified it, the Roman alphabet was used by Etruscan from the Greek letters. At first I had only 21 letters , which over time expanded to meet the 26 that we know today. Also, it must be said that it is known as latin alphabet to the derivation of the conventional Roman alphabet that includes graphic variations as the case of the Ñ .
Is the alphabet essential for writing?
Throughout history they have existed many alphabets that in turn derived in others; At present, there are many and varied, although some have many similarities to each other.
In Ancient Greece, more precisely in 900 B.C., the Semitic alphabet, used by the Phoenicians, and expanded their list of 22 signs, partly to represent the vocals. Three hundred years later, when its alphabet was already consolidated (having spread in much of the Mediterranean) it was adopted by the Roman people, which in turn fused it with Latin to create a more complete variant. With the great conquests made in this period, they managed to make their alphabet become the basic of all Western European languages.
Another alphabet known in ancient times was the Cyrillic (name given by one of its creators, St. Cyril), created in 860 A.D. in Constantinople. His goal was to achieve a system of symbols that would bring together the sounds of the language of the Slavic people. It was based on Greek and Hebrew letters and was formed by 43 characters, some of which were new. Scriptures such as Russian, Ukrainian, Serbian and Bulgarian derive from this alphabet. Not to be confused with the Polish, Czech, Slovak or Slovenian, who come from the Roman. What today persists of the Cyrillic alphabet are various systems of writing; Some characters have been lost and others have been transformed, taking various forms in each region.
Arabic is another of the alphabets that descends from the same origin as those mentioned above; it is believed that it arose from the fourth century of our was and that has not undergone many changes. It is currently used by all countries belonging to the Islamic world, certain countries in Asia, Africa and southern Europe. It is many things resembling the Hebrew alphabet, as in that it almost completely lacks vowels (except for three long ones, the rest are represented with diacritical marks).
Regarding Chinese writing, it could be said that it is unique since it does not consist of a phonetic or alphabetic system but is based on ideograms (graphic representation of ideas or objects); that is, they lack the alphabet and instead have a large number of symbols that allow them to represent their writing in an absolutely different way. At this point we can clarify that the alphabet is not strictly necessary for the developing of the writing. It is only one of the most conventional ways; Neither the richest nor the most important.
Other types of writing in which the alphabet is not used to express an idea are:
* TheMorse writing (also identified with the name of Morse code ), which consists of an alternative based on the representation of numbers and letters by means of signals that are emitted intermittently. In principle, it was used in telegraph lines through cable runs and later extended to communications by radio;
* He Braille , a system of tactile reading and writing that was developed specifically for the benefit of blind or visually impaired individuals.