From Latin no more, which in turn derives from a Greek word, the term nomadic allows reference to the one who goes from one place to another without establishing a fixed residence . The concept is linked to the person that is in constant travel or displacement and opposes the notion of sedentary .
A nomadic people It is one that does not live in a stable territory as a permanent residence. This way of life implies a very particular social, administrative and economic organization that adapts to this way of life.
Among the many and varied signs of identity that serve to determine that a culture or group is nomadic we could highlight the following:
Socially they are fundamentally structured in what would be clans and tribes.
The patriarch is usually the highest authority. This is an old man who is respected by the rest of the group and who, by his knowledge is the one who determines, where they are going to go and at what time they will start the exit.
They stand out for protecting the environment greatly. That is because they basically subsist on it, on the food that it can provide them at all times.
The oral tradition in this type of culture is fundamental. Hence, elements such as the story take center stage.
In ancient times, before the development of the farming and the cattle raising , all human beings were nomads as they had to move to get food. Nomadism allowed to populate large regions of the planet and contributed to the adaptation to natural phenomena such as glaciation .
It is difficult to know the history of nomadic peoples since writing is a characteristic of sedentary societies. That is why many of the references of these traveling cultures come, in reality, from descriptions made by sedentary peoples. The best way to meet a nomadic people of antiquity is through the trails interpreted by the archeology .
In addition to all of the above, it should be stressed that currently the nomadic tribes and groups that exist throughout the world geography are experiencing a situation of threat of disappearing. That is due to different causes. However, among all of them we would highlight the following as main:
Development of armed conflicts that revolve around land ownership.
Excessive and uncontrolled exploitation of natural resources.
Nothing peaceful imposition of sedentary lifestyle taking as an excuse the achievement of development.
Several populations are still nomads today. The Arab Bedouins , the Eskimos from Greenland and the tuaregs of the Sahara desert , for example, are among these groups. Private land ownership, the advance of industrialization and border control are some of the problems that exist for the subsistence of nomadic peoples.
In addition we could also highlight other nomadic groups such as the Yanomami in Venezuela, the Pygmies and Mbuti in Africa, the Mongols in Asia or the Zingarians in Europe. A large and varied number of nomadic cultures that would become part of the 40 million people currently living under the shelter of non-sedentary lifestyle.