The dictionary of the Royal Spanish Academy (RAE) define the epidemiology as the treaty that is focused on epidemics . It is a discipline of science dedicated to the analysis of the causes, the links, the way they are distributed, the regularity and the control of different factors that are associated with the Health .
Epidemiology uses resources from Health Sciences (as the medicine ) and of the social Sciences to study the welfare of people of a given community. It is part of the preventive medicine and help the design and development of the policies of public health .
The epidemics They constitute the major point of interest for epidemiology. It is known as epidemic disease that affects a large number of people at once and that expands in a given geographical area during a certain time period. Its effect can be many times harmful.
The appearance of an epidemic represents a number of patients that exceeds the average expected by specialists. For example: if in a country X 40 cases of a disease are detected per month, during a pandemic that number can be multiplied several times, which means a higher level of incidence of the projected.
Epidemiology attempts to establish the cause and effect link between exposure and disease. By analyzing the social causes that lead to the development of an epidemic, epidemiology allows developing prevention campaigns and attend more effectively to those affected. That is why this discipline is key to the community health .
The epidemiologist and the method used
He epidemiologist It is the one that is dedicated to epidemiology and its object of study is the way in which a disease is distributed according to time and place in a society, so you can determine if it has spread or has diminished its presence, compare how it is its frequency between different areas and if the people of one affected area have different characteristics in which the disease manifests itself.
The points studied by epidemiology are:
*Aspects demographic of those affected (sex, age and ethnic group to which they belong)
*Aspects biological (antibodies, enzymes, blood cells, physiological functions ... and what can be used to understand the effect that the disease causes)
*Aspects social and economic (economic situation, activities they carry out, circumstances of their birth ...)
*Aspects genetic (blood group and family history in similar diseases)
*Habits (consumption of narcotic drugs, cigarettes, alcohol or any medication, as well as degree of physical activity and food)
For the development of this science the scientific method and it consists of carrying out an exhaustive study on the life of the affected individuals, individually and collectively, in the community of which he is a part or where he has become ill.
In addition, epidemiology proposes plans for prevention for future infections, in order to prevent the disease from spreading by acquiring highly harmful characteristics, being able to become a pandemic or epidemic and that will put in risk group survival.
In epidemiological method it is the one that has been designed by epidemiologists in order to help obtain a hypothesis that allow to carry out the investigation. Through this method it is tried to eliminate all the possible causes already known, to be able to establish a rational study and that arrives at effective conclusions.