The idea of anabolism refers to a series of metabolism processes which implies the synthesis of different complex molecules through other molecules of greater simplicity. Anabolism, in this way, consists in the synthesis of certain biomolecules from molecules that, in comparison, are simpler.
The process requires reducing power and of the development of endergonic type reactions . The reducing power refers to the transfer of protons and electrons that make the coenzymes, generating the endergonic reaction that supposes an increase in the Energy free for anabolism processes to take place.
It can be said that anabolism allows get complex molecules starting from simpler molecules in a process that requires the use of energy. Anabolism, in this way, enables the creation of protein from amino acids and the molecules that are needed for the development of new cells.
The opposite processes of anabolism, which in turn are complementary, are called catabolism . Catabolism allows transforming the biomolecules of more complexity into simpler ones.
Among the functions of anabolism, we can highlight the following three:
* increase the dough muscular, one of the first that resonate upon hearing this term;
* manufacture body tissues and cell components. In other words, it is possible to say that thanks to anabolism growth takes place of living beings;
* store energy in organic molecules (such as triglycerides, glycogen and starch) through chemical bonds.
With regard to obtaining energy, the cells do environment , and for this they use three differentiated sources, which are the following:
* sunlight, as can be seen in photosynthesis, carried out by plants;
* other organic compounds, a resource used by heterotrophic organisms;
* inorganic compounds, as in the case of chemilitotrophic bacteria, which can be heterotrophic or autotrophic.
This leads us to the distinction between two types of anabolism: the autotroph and the heterotroph. It is known by the name of autotrophic anabolism to the one that takes place through the chemosynthesis or of photosynthesis; the first can only be carried out by some bacteria, while photosynthesis can be observed in algae, plants, photosynthetic bacteria and cyanobacteria. Autotrophic organisms do not need others to survive; However, they are responsible for the life of heterotrophic organisms.
On the other hand, there is the concept of heterotrophic anabolism , the metabolic process by which complex molecules are formed from simple precursors or molecules. It is understood by precursors chemicals to those substances necessary for the production of others; For example, ethyl alcohol is needed to form vinegar, which is considered a precursor to acetic acid.
The origin of the precursors can be: the catabolism that both autotrophic and heterotrophic cells perform of the reserve substances; the photosynthesis ; chemosynthesis; the digestion of organic compounds, carried out by heterotrophic cells. It is important to note that anabolism is not a process of oxidation, such as catabolism, but of reduction.
In the heterotrophic anabolism a first phase can be seen in which the biosynthesis of monomers takes place and then one in which the biosynthesis of polymers is given starting from said monomers.
They are known as anabolic or anabolic To them products that increase the intensity of anabolism, favoring development and growth. There are natural anabolics, such as vitamins , and others synthesized in laboratories, such as steroids What are they anabolic androgens (used, despite its adverse effects, by athletes who want to gain muscle mass).