The nationality it is the particular condition of the inhabitants of a nation. The concept includes notions linked to social, spatial, cultural and political factors . Nationality can be analyzed from a sociological point of view, but also from a legal-political order.
The gypsy nation, for example, is not seated in a State own; Similarly, there is no constitution that recognizes the inhabitants of a territory as gypsies. Membership in the group, therefore, is given by the origins and traditions of the people .
Other nationalities, on the other hand, are closely linked to the authority State, as is the case with Argentina, Spain or Chile, for example, that must be documented by means of a certificate issued by the State to those who meet a series of specific requirements; In these cases, there are also various obligations and rights associated with nationality, which have a legal character.
The characteristics of this type of nationality are directly linked to the current regulations . On the other hand, it is interesting to note that some countries allow their children or grandchildren population nationals inherit your citizenship; This also applies to those who were born in another country, whether or not they stepped on the land of their ancestors.
Nationality, therefore, may be determined by space geographical, legislation or state authorities. The dynamic nature of the concept means that some people have more than one nationality.
In general, states authorize the exercise of a single active nationality ; This means that the person, despite having two nationalities, only has rights and obligations with one of them at a time.
With regard to nationality linked to a particular State, when a person foreign (or that does not belong to that nation) enters the country, its relationship with the State is regulated by a series of laws, and never manages to be as close as that of a native.
Regarding this link, for the Private right, nationality is one of the civil states of a citizen, and this generates rights (to education, to receive aid from your government) and obligations (to provide service military, to make the tax declaration corresponding to your tax situation). On the other hand, there is a political link between a citizen and the State, which gives him the right to participate in the elections or, in the same way, to run for public office.
It is known as native nationality to the one that is acquired at birth; every system Legal combines two aspects to determine it:
* he ius sanguinis: he right blood The lineage to which each individual belongs, following the criteria that establish that a person inherits the nationality of his mother or father;
* he ius soli: the right of land. It is about assigning a person the nationality that corresponds to the territory in which he was born.
On the other hand, there is the so-called derivative nationality, which arises from a modification In the original. An individual can obtain a particular nationality through three different paths:
* if granted by a State to which it moves;
* residing for a certain period (variable in each case) in a country and respecting its laws;
* By own decision.
Derivative nationality can get lost in very serious cases, regulated by the legislature of each country; for example, by joining the army of an enemy country of his own. It should be clarified that some actions are also worthy of loss of nationality for individuals originating in a State.
For those who lose their original nationality for reasons of force majeure, such as emigration during childhood, there are also ways to recover it, which carry a series of requirements, particular to each country.