It is known as nepotism to exaggerated predilection that some active civil servants who hold public office hold regarding their family , close friends and friends when making concessions or hiring state employees. In these cases, the individual that access to public employment achieves the objective by its proximity and loyalty to the ruler or official in question, and not by its own merit or ability.
In the state where does the meritocracy (a system for which merit justifies the rise within a hierarchical scale), nepotism is considered an act of corruption. It is not accepted, on a social level, that a political leader decides to allocate public resources to a family member or friend for reasons of sympathy or affection.
For example: The mayor of a town appoints his brother as the head of the Ministry of Employment. If the chosen person proves sufficient merits for the position (professional training, background, etc.), the nepotism will be only suspicious. On the other hand, if the mayor's brother does not have a political or professional career, the case of nepotism would be confirmed.
Nepotism has an ancient history. It is believed that the concept derives from ancient Greek nepos (translated into Spanish as "nephew" ) or of the emperor of Roman origin Julio Nepote . In Roman times, in fact, there was a very famous case of nepotism, when Pompey granted important responsibilities to his son-in-law Metellus Scipio (of zero capacity in the military field) and was denounced by Marco Antonio before him Senate .
As we say, throughout history there have been many cases of nepotism. Among them, I would highlight, for example, Pisistratus who ruled Athens throughout the 6th century BC and did so through tyranny. The fact that he was genuinely afraid of plotting and plans to end his mandate and his power made him take the determination to offer the highest political positions to family members and friends in whom he had absolute confidence.
Already much closer in time, a case of very popular nepotism took place and it was the one carried out by Napoleon Bonaparte. So, this French leader what he did was bet on his family to give him certain positions of responsibility and importance. The best known of them all was the one he gave to his brother José Bonaparte, best known by Pepe Botella for his love of alcohol, who raised him as king of Spain.
Currently we also meet people who have been accused of nepotism. This would be the case, for example, of the President of Paraguay (Federico Franco) who precisely these days is trying to defend himself against the voices that have been raised against him, stating that during his term he has placed a total of 27 relatives, who They are occupying public positions of great responsibility.
Nor should we forget the one that has taken place recently in Mexico where Josefina Vázquez Mota (PAN leader) has been accused of nepotism as her sister (Margarita Silvia) is occupying a position in the Special Prosecutor for Violence Against Women when he allegedly does not have the necessary qualifications to have that one.
The Catholic Church he also showed signs of nepotism, especially during the Middle Ages . The story of several bishops who raised illegitimate descendants is known by presenting them as their "Nephews" and they showed favoritism towards them, and even some Popes have named their relatives cardinals.