The concept of evolution comes from the Latin term evolutionary and refers to the verb evolve and for its purposes. This action is linked to a status change or yet deployment or unfolding and its result is a new aspect or form of the element in question.
We can find the term in phrases like: "We have to wait for the evolution of the patient in the post-surgical stage before determining the steps to follow", "The young Colombian tennis player has shown a great evolution in his game", "The evolution of the business was not what we expected and we had to abandon the project".
Evolution can be understood as a process that some things must go through and that consists in abandoning a stage to move on to another, either gradually or progressively. We can exemplify this in the process of publishing a book, to name a case, where successive stages appear: an idea emerges in the head of a writer, he begins to write some drafts, then passes the text clean and finally gives Writing work finished. Then comes the time to find an editor for the publication and commercialization of the work. At this point what remains of that idea that emerged in the author is a vague memory that little resembles the final result.
Another way in which the term can be understood is as a synonym for movement , as for that curved path that the Humans , animals or some objects. That is to say, analyzing each of the stages from the life of an individual the evolution achieved by him could be known or understood.
We can also talk about biological evolution . This is a process through which species change over time (modifications as generations pass). This evolution generates a alteration in genetics of a population that could lead to the adaptation of the species to a new habitat or the emergence of a different species.
Important aspects of evolutionary theory
When thinking about the term evolution the first name that comes to us is Charles Darwin However, it is important to clarify that he was not the first to talk about the evolutionary issue of species, not even who coined the term. Charles himself mentioned a dozen authors and scientists who had preceded him whose studies were fundamental to the clear explanation of this theory. Between these researchers was his Erasmus grandfather Darwin, who in his books "Zoonomia" and "Laws of Organic Life" made an extensive analysis on the subject. In any case, it is necessary to point out that the great leap towards the conception of evolution on which today the science Charles gave it, with his theory about Natural selection .
Within the theory of evolution there are two well-marked lines of thought. One of them is the theory creationist , which is based on the guidelines that religion imposed through its Genesis , where life is possible thanks to the existence of a god and it is he who decides which species are born and how they do it and which must die. The other line is the evolutionist that he was inclined to affirm that species changed over time and that their survival depended on each one; and the variations over time and the degree of adaptation that each presented (how they evolved), were the decisive elements for this survival .
Darwin's theory of evolution was characterized by imposing new patterns to analyze the evolutionary line of species . His was the first explanation that could be considered credible where the most apt beings to face the variations in time managed to survive and those who perished were those who failed to do so. Those who managed to acclimatize to these changes were species that would show modifications generation after generation , so that future generations were born with the necessary characteristics to efficiently take advantage of new resources.
At this point there is an important difference between the thinking of some evolutionists such as Lamarck and Darwin himself. The first evolutionists claimed that the engine of species change was the desire for change , called Besoin. For example, that the giraffes had a long neck was because they had wanted to reach the treetops and that need or desire had generated the extension of their neck, characteristic that would be transmitted to the descendants (this theory could not be proven and was discarded). Darwin, on the other hand, said that evolution had to do with the adaptation to the new reality ; in the case of giraffes, he said that it was the ones with the slightly longer neck that had access to food, and for that reason they were the ones that could survive, feeding and reproducing normally.
It is necessary to clarify that when Darwin showed his theory there was still no knowledge of the laws of genetics and hereditary variation (work done by Gregor Mendel), theories that could have significantly helped him prove his studies. Because, thanks to genetics we can know for example that the use or disuse of a member or its usefulness can set important guidelines in the genetic evolution of a species. Despite this, his theory of evolution is considered the clearest and most obvious way to understand the evolutionary stages of life on our planet.