Doxa it is a term that is not part of the dictionary of the Royal Spanish Academy (RAE ). The concept, from the Greek, refers to a opinion or yet point of view .
In the field of philosophy , is understood as doxa al knowledge that does not provide absolute certainty . Doxa, therefore, is an apparent knowledge and not an objective fact. In other words: the doxa does not constitute a true knowledge of reality.
Several Greek philosophers focused on the matter of the doxa. Parmenides he used the notion to refer to the “Way of opinion”, different from the "Way of truth". Plato , on the other hand, considered that the doxa was a misleading knowledge developed from the imagination and of the faith . In this way he opposed the episteme , a knowledge that could be justified as true .
Continuing with the Platonic philosophy, the doxa would be a opinion (sensitive knowledge) product of imagination and beliefs. The episteme, however, appears as science (intelligible knowledge) created by intuition and reasoning. That is why the episteme approaches true knowledge, something that the doxa cannot achieve.
Plato called doxophores to those individuals who sought to ascend socially and profit through false knowledge. The doxa of these subjects only appeared to be to know , but it was not real knowledge.
French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu , meanwhile, used the idea of doxa in the framework of his theory of fields . For Bourdieu , a field is a network of social relations that develops in a space of action . Doxa, in this context, are the motivations or ideologies that are presented as inherent in an activity and, therefore, are not subject to questioning.
It is important to note that the original term, in Greek, can be translated as "fame or glory", although in this context it is understood as "opinion", and that is why we speak of a knowledge which is not always true but revolves around reality because of its massification.
Going back to the theory de Bourdieu, defines the doxa as those schemes of daily life that are considered natural and, therefore, are not questioned but are admitted as they are. The doxa is, in other words, the collective habitus that becomes predominant in a given society and time, and that does not demand reflection.
Before continuing, we must explain the concept of habitus. Usually the term habit It is defined as the acquired predisposition that gives us a daily activity, or act in a certain way. It is said that "the conduct determines the habit ", precisely because when we repeat it very often it becomes commonplace. But if we internalize the behavior, then the scheme is reversed, since" the habit determines the behavior ".
The word habitus, therefore, can resemble habit, understood as the repetitive practice that tends to be fixed as a result of its frequency.
Taking up the concept of doxa, Bourdieu considers it the thoughtless support of the actions of the subjects who live in society . The doxa can undergo changes, whose speed is closely linked to the kind of society in which it is contextualized: in a conservative tends to statism, while in a permeable it will change easily.
Doxa changes take place between two periods, but are linked to the milestones, those events of a historical nature that mark society and can effectively alter its doxa, even in a negative way (among the most common examples are coups, periods of repression and wars).