The coherent set of statements that form a unity of meaning and that has a communicative intention is known as text . The act of narrating, on the other hand, refers to telling or telling a story, both true and fictional.
It can be said, therefore, that the narrative text is the one that includes the account of events that take place in a place throughout a certain time space . This story includes the participation of various characters, which can be real or imaginary.
The narration It is composed of a succession of facts. In the case of literary narration, it inevitably configures a world of fiction, beyond which the facts narrated are based on reality. This happens since the author cannot abstract himself from including elements of his own invention or from qualifying what happened on the real plane.
In general, the structure of the narrative text is formed by a introduction (which allows us to state the initial situation of the text), a knot (where the main theme of the text arises) and a outcome (the space where the knot conflict is resolved).
In addition to the above, we would have to underline the existence of two types of structures. On the one hand, there would be the external one, which is the one in charge of organizing the story through chapters, sequences, ... On the other hand, we would run into the internal one that revolves around the order of the events that are taking place. place.
This implies, therefore, that said structure can be linear or chronological; in flash-back, turning to the past; in media res, starting in the middle of the story; or also in flash-foward, anticipating questions of the future.
No less important when analyzing a narrative text is to make it clear that the figure of the narrator becomes fundamental, who is the one who tells the story itself to the reader. It can appear in the first person, in the second person or in the third person, also called omniscient.
In addition to all of the above, it should be stressed that in every narrative text there are two types of characters: the main and the secondary ones. Both one and the other can express themselves in the story in direct style, reproducing their words textually, or indirectly. But it is also true that this same manifestation can be done through monologues or even indirectly free.
Other essential elements that the text in question must have are space, the place where the story takes place, and time. The latter is of two types: external, is the time in which that is located, and internal, the period of days, months or years that last the events.
Within the narrative text can be distinguished between internal elements (the narrator, space, time) and the external elements (like the chapters, the sequences and the different fragments that can make up the whole of the work).
Among the different types of narrative texts, finally, we can mention the story (the short fiction narrative), the novel (which has a greater complexity and extension than the story) and the chronicle (which tells real facts).